The establishment of Yogyakarta is designed by Sultan Hamengku Buwono I by setting up a high philosophy foundation. Sultan Hamengku Buwana I arranged the city layout of Yogyakarta that stretch to the north and to the south direction by building Keraton Yogyakarta as the center point of Yogyakarta city. Sultan built also Tugu Golong-Gilig (Pal Putih) on the northern part of Keraton and on the southern part of Panggung Krapyak. From these three points, if we draw the straight line we will find imaginary axis that’s known as Philosopy Line Of Yogyakarta.

Philosophycally the center of this imaginary axis represents the harmony and balance in personal relationship between human person and God, between the humans itself, or between the human and the nature including those 5 elements creation like the fire from Mount Merapi, the earth from Ngayogyakarta, the water from the Sea South, the air and also the aether. The three elements of life like the physic, the spirit, and the soul are also being in the philosphy of this imaginary axis. Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono with his title of Sayidin Pantagama Kalifatullah turned this hindust philosophy concept into Islamic Javanese Philosophy concept that’s known as “Hamemayu Hayunung Buwana” and “Manunggaling Kawula lan Gusti”

The location of Tugu Golong-Gilig, Keraton, and Panggung Krapyak is in the same straight line that what’s make them called as part of Philosophy Axis of Keraton Yogyakarta. Tugu Golong-Gilig/Pal Putih and Panggung Krapyak are the symbol of Lingga and Yoni which represent the fertililty. The top of Tugu Golong-Gilig has round shape, while its bottom is cylinder and white. That’s why this monument is called also Pal Putih

Tugu Golong Gilig represents the existence of Sultan in carrying out his life process. It can be done by whorshiping the God sincerely to become a well being (golong-gilig) and it must be pure in heart too (reperesented by the white color of the monument). Those become the reason why Tugu Golong-Gilig becomes also the main point of view of sultan during his meditation in the chamber of Manguntur Tangkil in the north Sitihinggil. The hindust philosophy connection among Tugu, Kraton, and Panggung Krapyak were turned into Javanse Islamic concept namely “Sangkan Paraning Dumadi” by Sultan Hamengku Buwana I

The philosophy of Panggung Krapyak to the north direction describe the human life journey since they were born, grew up, married, and also gave birth (sangkaning dumadi). The south city square or alun-alun Selatan represents the adult human life where they are ready to marry a lady.

In addition, started from Tugu Golong-Gilig / Tugu Pal Putih to the south side represents the human journey in facing his God (paraning dumadi). Golong-gilig symbolize the unity of intention, emotion, and action that should be done with a pure heart (the white color of tugu) through Margatama (path to virtue) towards the south direction by Malioboro (by using torch/ the guidelines of the regents), and continue to the south through Margamulya and then Pangarukan (repeling the lust)

The existence of Kepatihan complex and Beringharjo market symbolizes the world and the human temptation must be avoided. Along the way of Margatama, Malioboro, and Margamulya we will find tamarin trees (Tamarindus Indica) that means sengsem / attracting and will also discover gayam tree (Inocarpus edulis) means ayom / calming.


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